Product Development, Advertising,
Use of Products & Services

Testing not conducted in line with international ethical standards


Everyone has the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health and the right to human dignity. While testing or experimentation is important to achieving this right, at the same time such testing must be conducted in line with international ethical standards to avoid violations of the enjoyment of such rights. A business must obtain the full and informed consent of testing subjects and neither intentionally mislead nor fail to inform testing subjects as to the nature and possible effects of an experiment.


Businesses should be aware of the risk of prejudicial and unfair selection of participants, as participants must be free of pressure or undue influence to voluntarily participate in tests. Vulnerable members of society who are easily coerced are at higher risk of falling victim, and examples include prisoners, impoverished persons and children. Testing should provide social and clinical value, without this basis testing subjects are exposed to unnecessary risks of harmful effects.


Businesses must ensure that they conduct testing in line with applicable international ethical standards. This means that testing subjects should be selected fairly, be allowed to provide informed consent, and be treated with respect throughout the entire process. Testing policies and procedures should be independently reviewed from the initial to concluding stages to avoid the risk of impacting the human rights of participants.

Relevant Human Rights Instruments

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966, Article 7




Ensuring human test subjects provide free and informed consent will assist in achieving SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages